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< Leonid I. Frantsevich >


Swimming in the Diving Wasp Prestwichia aquatica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Entomologia Generalis 2003, 26: 225-234.

Abstract. Diving wasps, Prestwichia aquatica Lubbock 1864, were videorecorded in a flat microaquarium under a dissecting microscope. Records were analyzed frame by frame. P. aquatica of 0.9 mm body size swims with the aid of legs with 5-7 mm/s, striking about 7 cycles per second. Walking on the dry ground or underwater, it advances 2.8-3.5 mm/s, stepping about 2.6 cycles per second. Leg co-ordination in swimming as well as in walking was of the alternating tripod type. Trajectories of the swimming power stroke in the middle and hind legs are spaced.

(All videos are in AVI format. Left-click on an image to view in a separate window or right-click and choose "Save File" to download)

Underwater walking in P. aquatica


Podogram of walking on dry ground in P. aquatica.
Black rectangles indicate swing phase. Ticks on the time scale every 10 frames, 0.4 s.

Podogram of underwater walking in P. aquatica.

Swimming in P. aquatica


Podograms of swimming in P. aquatica.


Trajectories of power stroke in the swimming P. aquatica. Leg postures were selected from video stills. They are numbered beginning from the start of the recovery stroke.


Collection of films:

Courtship dances in a fly, Lispe spp.

Stick friction in a lantern fly, Lycorma delicatula

Arolium of a hornet, Vespa crabro

Indirect closing of elytra in a cockchafer, Melolontha

Righting kinematics in beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)

Leg coordination during turning on an extremely narrow substrate in a bug, Mesocerus marginatus (Heteroptera, Coreidae)

Swimming in the Diving Wasp Prestwichia aquatica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

Kinematics of elytra in beetles

Indirect closing of elytra in various beetles

Double rotation of the opening (closing) elytra in beetles (Coleoptera)

Actuation and performance of the elytron-to-body articulation in a diving beetle


I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, 2004-2009